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“Affordable” Utility Service: What is Regulation’s Role? With the nation’s economy stressed, politicians are pressuring regulators in order to make utility service “affordable.” This picture has three problems. Wealth Redistribution just isn’t Regulation’s Department Under embedded cost ratemaking, the regulator identifies prudent costs, computes a revenue requirement to pay for those costs, then designs rates to produce the revenue requirement. Rate design makes each customer category bear the costs it causes. None of these steps—prudent cost identification, revenue requirement computation, cost allocation—involves affordability. Affordability becomes one factor only we lower rates for the unfortunate by raising rates for others if we jigger the numbers—if. Achieving affordability through rate design means compromising cost causation to redistribute wealth. It resembles taxation of 1 class to profit another, using this exception: With taxation, citizens can retire representatives whose votes offend; but with utility service, captive customers are stuck aided by the rates regulators set. In place of shifting costs between customer classes, regulators might redistribute wealth in another way: by “taxing” shareholders, for example., reducing shareholder returns below the otherwise level that is appropriate. But taxing shareholders isn’t any more the regulator’s domain than is taxing other customers. And it’s likely unconstitutional: Having invested to serve the general public, shareholders expect “just compensation,” undiminished by a forced contribution for affordability. Moving money among citizens is really important to a fair society. Poverty is intolerable and charity that is private suffices, so government steps in. But helping the luckless ought to be done by political leaders, who must justify their actions towards the electorate; not by professional regulators, whose focus must certanly be industry performance. Affordability of any product—groceries, a Lexus, or utility service—depends using one’s income and wealth, and on the cost of other products. The poor could better afford utility service whenever we raised their income and increased their wealth. Or if perhaps we lowered their price of housing, medical care, transportation, or education. However these initiatives are outside regulators’ authority. To make regulators in charge of affordability is illogical. Cheap Energy is politics that are cheap Politicians who argue for affordability use the easy road. All efforts that increase costs, while commanding the regulator to make service “affordable,” is low-risk politics, responsibility-avoidance politics, cheap politics to legislate economic development, greenness, reliability, energy independence, and technology leadership. When politicians call for “lower rates,” the electorate feels entitled to receive rather than encouraged to contribute. But no family, no congregation, no civil society, thrives if its key verb is “take” in the place of “give.” And when lower rates now result in higher costs later, citizens become cynical. Self-doubting, also, because they question their ability to differentiate pander from policy. These are the results when politicians avoid their responsibility for affordability. “Affordability” Undermines Regulation’s Responsibility Mathematician Carson Chow says he’s found the explanation for our obesity epidemic: low food prices. Studying 40 many years of data, he spotted both correlation and causation between girth growth and value declines. He traced these trends to government farm policy shifts (from investing in non-production to stimulating full production) and technology boosts (which lowered production costs). The lower the fee, the greater amount of production; the more production, the greater (fast) food; the greater food, the greater calories available; the greater calories available, the more calories consumed. See C. Dreifus, “A Mathematical Challenge to Obesity,” The New York Times (May 14, 2012). Our company is both over-consuming and under-appreciating: Dr. Chow unearthed that “Americans are wasting food at a progressively increasing rate.” (Fairness point: Chow has his doubters. See Michael Moyer, “The Mathematician’s Obesity Fallacy,” Scientific American (May 15, 2012). So what does food have to do with “affordable” utility service? A regulator’s job is always to regulate—to establish performance standards, then align compensation with compliance. In this equation, affordability just isn’t a variable. In order to make service affordable to your unlucky, the commission will have to lower the cost below cost. That leads to overconsumption, to Dr. Chow’s “waste.” This inefficiency hurts everyone. Economic efficiency exists when no further action can create benefits without increasing costs by more than the huge benefits. Conversely, economic inefficiency exists whenever we forego some action that, if taken, can make someone better off without making anyone worse off. To over-consume, to waste, to act inefficiently, to go out of a benefit on the table, makes everyone worse off. Underpricing in the true name of affordability makes someone worse off, unnecessarily. How sensible is that? Actions for Affordability: Just The Right Roles for Regulators Unless essential services are affordable, government shall not be credible. Regulators, being element of government, have to help. (A commission staff chief told me 25 years ago, “Sometimes you have to put away your principles and do what’s right.”) And some statutes that are regulatory require the regulator to create service “affordable.” (as it is the way it is, i will be told, in Vanuatu, an nation that is 83-island the South Pacific.) Listed below are 3 ways, in line with economic efficiency, for regulators to address affordability. Assist the unlucky reduce usage. Regulators can advocate for affordability by pressing for policies which make consumption less costly, like improved housing stock, “orbs” that signal high prices, and lighting that is efficient appliances. Analogy: Doctors save lives not only by treating gunshot wounds, but by advocating for gun safety. (American Academy of Pediatrics: “The lack of guns from children’s homes and communities is one of reliable and effective measure to prevent firearm-related injuries. “) Interpret “affordability” as long-term affordability. Getting prices right and preventing overconsumption, even if it does increase prices within the short run, reduces total costs within the long haul. Expose the side that is dark of. Rather than follow politicians down the low-price, low-risk, cheap politics path, regulators, like Dr. Chow, can talk facts: about the real costs of utility service, the situation of overconsumption, the error of under-pricing. Due to their credibility rooted in expertise, regulators can pressure legislators to do something on affordability directly by enacting income-raising policies. Better education, housing, and health care—all these lead to higher incomes, in order that citizens are able to afford utility service priced properly.

"Affordable" Utility Service: What is Regulation's Role? With the nation's economy stressed, politicians are pressuring regulators in order to make utility service "affordable." This picture has three problems. Wealth Redistribution just isn't Regulation's Department Under embedded cost ratemaking, the regulator identifies prudent costs, computes a revenue requirement to pay for…

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